Monday, October 16, 2017

Pan-Seared Tofu Teriyaki


We served this over white Jasmine rice sprinkled with green onions but you can serve alone with your favorite side.

Pan-Seared Tofu Teriyaki
The Pollan Family Table CB

2            12-14 oz. packages extra firm organic tofu, drained
1            tablespoon oil of your choice
3/4         cup Teriyaki glaze (recipe to follow)

Set a rack in the middle of the oven and preheat the oven to 400 degrees

Slice the tofu blocks in half horizontally to make them half as thick, then vertically, to make 4 equal-size rectangular tofu steaks from each package, for a total of 8 steaks.  (I used one package and sliced tofu in thinner slices).  Place the tofu in a single layer on several layers of paper towels , place a plate or another cutting board on top, and rest a weight, such as a small skillet, on top of that.  This will press the excess liquid from the tofu.  Let the steaks drain for at least 10 minutes.

In a large nonstick skillet over medium-high heat, heat the oil until shimmering.  Pat the tofu steaks dry and place them in the pan.  Cook undisturbed until golden, 4-5 minutes.  Flip and cook until golden brown on the other side, 4-5 minutes more.  Remove the pan from the heat.

In a casserole or baking pan large enough to hold the tofu in a single layer, spread just enough teriyaki glaze to lightly coat the bottom (2-3 tablespoons).  Lay the tofu steaks on top and spoon the remaining teriyaki glaze, coating them completely.

Bake until browned and bubbly, 15-20 minutes.  Serve hot.
I served over white Jasmine rice and sprinkled with green onions.

Terrific Teriyaki Glaze
Makes 3/4 cup

1            teaspoon sesame seeds
1            teaspoon cornstarch
1/2         cup low-sodium soy sauce
2            tablespoons mirin
2            tablespoons dark brown sugar
1            teaspoon minced garlic
1            teaspoon finely grated fresh ginger
1            teaspoon sesame oil

If using sesame seeds, cook them in a small dry-skillet over medium heat, shaking the pan occasionally, until they begin to darken and give off a toasty aroma, 2-3 minutes.  Transfer the seeds to a small plate and set aside.

In a small mixing bowl, mix the cornstarch with 2 teaspoons of warm water.  Set aside.

In a small saucepan, combine the soy sauce, mirin, brown sugar, garlic, ginger and 1/3 cup of water.  Place over medium-high heat and stir occasionally until the sauce comes to a low boil.  Reduce the heat to medium and add the dissolved cornstarch.  Continue stirring until the sauce thickens, about 5 minutes.  Remove from the heat and add the sesame oil and the sesame sees, if desired.



Wednesday, October 11, 2017

Ceasar Salad with Crispy Garlic Roasted Chickpeas



**dressing requires soaking cashews for 1-2 hours

I was never one to make my own salad dressings but now that I’ve started, I can’t buy bottled.   This dressing is thick, delicious, full of flavor and anchovy free! 

Along with the crispy garlic roasted chickpeas, I added a few homemade croutons.
It’s a meal on it’s own but we enjoyed it with a side of oven baked potato wedges.

Ceasar Salad with Crispy Garlic Roasted Chickpeas

Dressing:

1/2            cup raw cashews
1/4            water
2               tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil
1               tablespoon fresh lemon juice
1 & 1/2     teaspoons Dijon mustard
1-2            cloves garlic, to taste
1/4-1/2      teaspoon garlic powder, to taste
1 & 1/2     teaspoons vegan Worcestershire sauce (Amy’s brand is good)
2 & 1/2     teaspoons capers
1/2            teaspoon fine sea salt, or to taste.

Place cashews in a bowl and add water to cover by a couple of inches.  Soak for 1-2 hours or overnight in the fridge.  Drain and rinse.

Transfer the cashews to a high-speed blender and add the remaining dressing ingredients except the salt.  Blend on high until the dressing is super smooth.  You can add an additional splash of water if necessary to get it blending.  Add salt and adjust the other seasonings, if desired, and blend briefly to combine.  Set aside.

Garlic Roasted Chickpeas:

1            14-oz can chickpeas, drained  and rinsed
1            teaspoon extra-virgin olive oil
1/2         teaspoon garlic powder
1/2         teaspoon fine sea salt
1/8-1/4   teaspoon cayenne pepper, to taste  (optional)

Preheat the oven to 400 degrees.  Line a large baking sheet with parchment paper.  Place the chickpeas in a dishcloth and rub dry (it’s ok if some skins fall off).  Spread the chickpeas out on the baking sheet.  Drizzle with the oil and roll the chickpeas around your hands to coat.  Sprinkle on the garlic powder, salt and cayenne, if using and gently shake the pan until combined.  Roast for 15 minutes, then gently roll the chickpeas around on the baking sheet and roast for 15-20 minutes more, until lightly golden.  Remove from the oven and let cool for about 10 minutes.  The chickpeas will be soft coming out of the oven, but they will firm up as they cool.

Salad


We used Romaine lettuce, orange bell pepper, red onion, thinly sliced cucumbers and home made garlic croutons.

Thursday, October 5, 2017

Oven Baked Potatoes with Smoky Vegan Mayo Dipping Sauce


Here's a fun side dish to accompany a big, healthy salad.

Oven Baked Potatoes with Smoky Vegan Mayo Dipping Sauce

1            cup vegan mayo (Veganese, Trader Joe’s Brand, Hellman’s vegan mayo)
1            tablespoon fresh lemon juice, plus zest for garnish
1            teaspon smoked paprika
1/2         teaspoon ground cumin
1/2         teaspoon cayenne pepper
1 & 1/2 teaspoon kosher salt, divided
4            russet potatoes
              olive oil
              onion powder
              garlic powder
              ground pepper

Whisk vegan mayo, lemon juice, smoked paprika, ground cumin, cayenne pepper and 1/2 teaspoon slat together in a small bowl.  Set aside.

Wash and cut potatoes into wedges.  Par boil for a few minutes, just to get the cooking process going.  Drain and wipe dry.  Put slices in bowl and toss with olive oil, sprinkle with 1 teaspoon salt, onion powder, garlic powder and pepper.
**You can just use S&P but I like to make the potatoes as flavorful as possible.

Heat oven to 350.  Spread potato wedges on baking sheet.  Bake for 15 minutes,
take pan out of oven and flip or move around with spatula.  Return to oven and

cook until crispy.  Approximately 15 minutes.  I cranked the oven up to 375 for the last 10 minutes.  Keep an eye on the wedges so as not to burn.

Tuesday, October 3, 2017

Butternut Squash Soup


I can't believe I haven't posted a recipe since August.  When the weather is so warm and beautiful, I find myself getting out in it rather than spending time in the kitchen.  Now that Fall is officially here, I'm ready to roll up my sleeves and try out some new recipes!

I have quite a few recipes for Butternut Squash Soup but this one I made with what
I had on hand so I don’t have precise measurements – it's kinda of a “go with the flow” soup!

Butternut Squash Soup

            coconut oil and olive oil for sautéing           
1/2       yellow onion, diced
2          garlic cloves, minced
1          medium butternut squash, peeled and diced
1          15 oz. can white beans (pureed in a little of it’s liquid) – set aside
            good pinch of powdered ginger
            good pinch of white pepper (or black if don’t have)
            couple shakes of cayenne pepper
1          vegetable bouillon cube
1          15 oz. can reduced fat coconut milk (I used Trader Joes)
            salt to taste

Melt coconut oil and olive oil in bottom of soup pan.  Add diced onion and sauté till soft, add garlic and stir.  Add diced butternut squash.  Sprinkle in spices, stir around
and cook a few minutes.  Add can coconut milk, bouillon cube and desired amount of
water.  I think I used 4-6 cups.  You can always add more liquid later.

Should take approximately 15-20 minutes for the squash to soften at medium heat.

In small food processor or blender, add a little of the canned bean juice along with the drained beans to make a paste.  Set aside.

When squash is soft, puree with emulsion blender (or in batches in regular blender).  Once soup is pureed, add the bean mixture, stir around and continue to blend until
smooth and shiny.


Add liquid as needed.

Tuesday, August 15, 2017

Full-flavor Smokehouse Vegan Burgers


I found this recipe by actor Milan Ross who went vegan for health reasons.  I made the patties a day before cooking them and just kept them in the fridge.  If you don't have Smoked Salt and Pepper, just add a dash of Liquid Smoke.  I'll be making these again soon.

Full-flavor Smokehouse Vegan Burgers
The Change Cookbook - adapted

1            cup unsalted raw walnuts
1/2         cup uncooked quick-cooking oats
1            medium white onion, finely chopped
4            cloves garlic
1            Portobello mushroom, stemmed and finely chopped
1            tsp. chopped fresh thyme
1/2         medium beet grated (I used 1 cooked & marinated beet finely chopped)
1            15 oz. can kidney beans, rinsed and drained
1/4          teaspoon smoked salt (I used a dash of liquid smoke)
1/2         cup cooked brown rice
3            tablespoons commercial smoky BBQ sauce
1/4         teaspoon pepper
1/4         teaspoon garlic powder
1/8         teaspoon oregano
****I added approximately 1/4 cup dry bread crumbs

Buns and fixin’s

Place the walnuts in a dry skillet, and cook over medium heat, stirring frequently, until the nuts are fragrant and golden.  Transfer to a food processor

Place the oats in the skillet, and toast over medium heat for 3-5 minutes.  Add to the food processor, and pulse the mixture until you have a fine meal.  Set aside.

Lightly spray a large skillet with nonstick cooking spray, and heat to medium heat.  Add the onions and sauté, stirring frequently, until translucent.  Add the garlic, mushrooms, and thyme, and cook until the mushrooms are soft.  Remove from the heat, and stir in the grated beet until it release it’s color.  Set aside.  I just added the chopped marinated beat to the mixture.

Place the kidney beans and smoked salt (or liquid smoke) in a large mixing bowl, and mash until only a few beans remain whole.  Add the cooked brown rice, reserved walnut mixture, reserved mushroom mixture, BBQ sauce, and spices, and mix thoroughly until you’ve formed a moldable dough. 

Preheat a grill pan.  Divide the burger mixture into 8 equal portions, and mold into patties.  Arrange the patties on outdoor grill or grill pan, and cook for 3-4 minutes on each side, searing grill marks into each side.

Dress and serve.


Wednesday, August 9, 2017

Singapore Noodles with Tofu


Singapore Noodles with Tofu
Food Network Magazine

8            ounces thin rice noodles
1/4         cup vegetable oil
1            14-oz. package firm tofu, cut into 1/2” cubes
Kosher salt
4            scallions, cut into 2-inch pieces
2            stalks celery, thinly sliced
2            tablespoons Madras curry powder
3            tablespoons soy sauce
1/2         cup low-sodium vegetable broth
Juice of 1/2 lime plus wedges for serving
1            cup mung bean sprouts

***Add more liquid if you like a soupier dish.

Put the noodles in a large bowl, cover with hot water and soak until just softened, about 4 minutes.  Drain and rinse under cold water; set aside.

Meanwhile, heat 2 tablespoons vegetable oil in a large nonstick skillet over high heat.  Add he tofu in a single layer and cook, undisturbed, until golden on the bottom, about 4 minutes.  Toss gently with a spatula and cook, tossing occasionally, until golden all over, about 4 more minutes; season with salt.  Add 1 more tablespoon vegetable oil, the scallions celery and bell pepper and cook, stirring, until the vegetables are crisp-tender, about 2 minutes.  Add 1 tablespoon curry powder and season with salt; stir until the vegetables are coated and the curry powder is lightly toasted, about 1 minute.  Transfer the tofu and vegetables to a bowl.

Add the remaining 1 tablespoon vegetable oil and 1 tablespoon curry powder to the skillet.  Add the drained noodles and cook, tossing, until they turn yellow, 1-2 minutes.  Add the tofu mixture, soy sauce and vegetable broth and cook, tossing, until most of the liquid evaporates, 1-2 minutes.  Stir in the lime juice and season with salt.  Top each serving with the bean sprouts and serve with lime wedges.



Friday, August 4, 2017

Tempeh Fajita Rice Bowls

You can add whatever you like to a rice bowl.  The rice is the base of the meal then you can add
as you go.  If you don't like beans, just leave them out or add some chopped tomato and green onions.
If you can't find Temphe, just fry up some tofu -- get creative!

Tempeh Fajita Rice Bowls

1            cup basmati or brown rice  (cook to package directions)
kosher sale
2            bell peppers (any color you like), cut into thick strips
1            large onion in thick rings
3            tablespoons olive oil
freshly ground pepper
1            pkg. Tempeh  (boiled for approximately 5 min. to remove bitterness)
1            can black beans
1            tablespoon fajita seasoning
juice 1/2 lime
1            cup fresh cilantro
1            avacado, sliced
1/2         cup vegan sour cream
1/2       
 cup pico de gallo or salsa


Cook Tempeh in boiling water for approximately 5 minutes, set aside to cool.

Cook rice according to pkg. directions.

Sauce:  put a couple bell pepper strips and 2 outer onion strips in a blender, set aside.

Cut Tempeh in strips and cook in oiled and heated skillet or stove top grill.  Add fajita seasoning, salt and pepper.   Cook until browned.  Take off grill and set aside.

Add a bit more oil to skillet and add onions and bell pepper.  Cook until slightly charred in spots or if using a skillet, tender.  Set aside and squirt with lime juice.

Sauce:  I played around with the sauce a bit and actually added 1/2 avocado, lime juice, 1 garlic clove and water until it reached a desired consistency.  Start with 1/4 cup water and go from there.  Add cilantro for final blend.

Fluff the rice with a fork and stir in the cilantro puree or add it to the entire fixed bowl.   Top bowl with some black beans, onion and pepper mixture and cooked Tempeh.

Top with vegan sour cream and salsa.



Wednesday, July 19, 2017

Date Nut Bread


This is a healthy bread for breakfast but also fills in quite nicely as an afternoon snack with a cup of tea.

Date Nut Bread
Nom Yourself CB by Mary Mattern
https://www.amazon.com/Nom-Yourself-Simple-Vegan-Cooking/dp/1583335854

1            cup dates, pitted and chopped
1            cup boiling water
2            cups sifted unbleached all-purpose flour
1            tablespoon baking powder
1            teaspoon baking soda
1/2         teaspoon sea salt
1/2         teaspoon ground flaxseed meal
3            tablespoons water
2            tablespoons granulated sugar
1            tablespoon vegan margarine, melted
1            teaspoon pure vanilla extract
1/4         pure maple syrup
1/4         cup strong coffee
1/4         cup chopped walnuts  (I used 1/2 cup)
1/4         cup chopped pecans  (I used 1/2 cup)

Preheat oven to 350 degrees.

Grease 9 x 5 x 3” loaf pan and set aside

In small bowl, combine the dates and boiling water and let cool.

In a large bowl, mix the flour, baking powder, baking soda, sea salt, cinnamon and allspice.

In another small bowl, mix the flaxseed meal and water.  Let sit until the flaxseed meal absorbs the water.

Add the sugar, vegan margarine, and vanilla to the flaxseed meal mixture.  Beat for 1 minute.

Pour the flaxseed mixture and dates (with water) into the flour mixture.  Add the maple syrup, coffee, walnuts, and pecans.  Mix until well combined.

Pour the mixture into the prepared bread pan and bake for 1 hour or until toothpick inserted into the center of the oaf comes out clean.

Let the bread cool to room temperature, then remove from the loaf pan and slice.



Friday, July 14, 2017

Buffalo Cauliflower Kale and Romaine Salad

This is from a fun new cookbook I purchased "Nom Yourself" and it's full of delicious looking recipes.  This is the first recipe I tried and it did not disappoint.  I would recommend making the dressing ahead of time and just keep in the fridge.  Can't wait to make this again.

Cauliflower Kale and Romaine Salad
Nom Yourself Cookbook by Mary Mattern
https://www.amazon.com/Nom-Yourself-Simple-Vegan-Cooking/dp/1583335854
Slightly Modified

1             cup water
3/4          cup sifted unbleached all-purpose flour
1  1/2      teaspoons garlic powder
1             teaspoon baking powder
pinch of salt
1            medium head of cauliflower, cut into bite-size pieces
coconut oil cooking spray
2            tablespoons coconut oil
1/2         cup hot sauce (we used a local restaurants homemade sweet hot sauce)
4-6         cups chopped kale and romaine leaves
              sesame seeds for topping
              sliced green onions for topping
              Buttermilk Ranch Dip  (recipe below)

Preheat oven to 450 degrees

Mix the water, flour, garlic powder, baking powder and salt in a medium bowl.

Spray baking pan (original recipe suggested parchment paper but the
     Cauliflower ended up sticking to the paper and was difficult to remove)

Dip each piece of cauliflower into the batter and shake all excess batter off.  Then place the pieces on the baking sheet.  Spray the tops of the cauliflower with coconut oil cooking spray. Do this lightly by holding the bottle about a foot from the cauliflower.

Bake for 17 minutes.

While the cauliflower is cooking, melt the coconut oil in a small saucepan over medium heat.  Add the hot sauce and stir.  Once combined, remove the pan from the heat
When the cauliflower is ready, put the florets in a heat-safe bowl and pour the hot sauce mixture over them.  Toss to coat.

Place the cauliflower back on the baking pan or parchment paper and bake for another 5 minutes.

Chop the Kale and Romaine and place on platter.  Top greens with Cauliflower and drizzle with Vegan Ranch Dressing.




Buttermilk Ranch Dip
Makes 2 cups  (I cut in half for this salad)

1  1/2        cups vegan mayonnaise
1/2            teaspoon garlic powder
1/2            teaspoon onion powder
1/4            teaspoon freshly ground black pepper
2               teaspoons dried parsley
1/4            cup unsweetened almond milk  (add a little at a time so doesn’t get to thin)
1               teaspoon apple cider vinegar
                 salt to taste

Whisk the vegan mayo, garlic powder, onion powder, pepper, parsley, almond milk, and apple cider vinegar in a medium bowl.


If the dip is too thin, add more vegan mayo.

Sunday, July 9, 2017

Sweet Potato and Peanut Stew with Kale



I realize it's not "Soup Season" but when you have a couple days that are 70 degrees and the nights dip into the 60's,  why not live on the edge and make a nice, spicy pot of soup.




Wednesday, June 28, 2017

Tempeh Nachos with Vegan Queso


No real recipe for the nachos except for the Queso that I topped them off with.
      http://smithsvegankitchen.blogspot.com/2017/06/vegan-queso.html

1     pkg. Tempeh, boiled for a few minutes then chopped
       (sautéed Tempeh with taco seasoning in olive oil until browned)
1     can refried pinto beans, heated
1     tomato
       chopped onion
       guacamole (1 avocado, onion and cilantro)
       queso

Placed corn tortillas on baking sheet and layered with refried beans, tempeh and onion.
Baked at 350 degrees for approximately 20 minutes.  Removed from oven and topped with
tomato and queso and a big dollop of guacamole.

Tuesday, June 27, 2017

Vegan Queso


I haven’t purchased a new cookbook since I did a major purge but this one is worth it.  Lots of ideas and most recipes aren’t too complicated or time consuming and the photos are lovely!  We used the vegan Queso over a big plate of Tempeh Nachos.

Vegan Queso
Minimalist Baker’s Everyday Cooking

3            tablespoons vegan butter or oil
4            cloves garlic, minced
1/4            cup unbleached all-purpose flour
1 & 1/4-2            cups unsweetened plain almond milk or other nut/soy milk
1/2            cup nutritional yeast  (can purchase at health food stores or Whole Foods)
1/2            teaspoon sea salt
1/4            teaspoon ground cumin
1/4            teaspoon chili powder
1            tablespoon maple syrup or substitute with organic cane sugar
***1/4 hot sauce – optional

***   I added 1/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper

Heat a large skillet over medium heat.  Once hot, add the vegan butter and let it melt and start to sizzle, about 1 minute.

Add the garlic and stir to disperse.  Cook for 1-2 minutes, stirring frequently, then reduce the heat if the garlic starts to brown too quickly.

Add the flour 1 tablespoon at a time and whisk.  Cook for 1 minute, then whisk in the almond milk 1/2 cut at a time until it no longer looks thick and lumpy,  about 1 1/4 cups total.  (We made ours a little saucier for the nachos).

Cook in the skillet for 2 minutes, then transfer to the bowl of a high-speed blender.  Add the nutritional yeast, salt, cumin, chili powder, maple syrup, and hot sauce or cayenne pepper.  Blend on high until creamy and smooth.

Taste and adjust the seasonings and liquid.  Transfer back to the skillet and simmer on low for 5 minutes, stirring often, to thicken.



Sunday, June 4, 2017

Curry Baked Tofu Salad


Whole Foods makes a Seitan salad you can buy in the deli so I tried to recreate the flavors using Baked Tofu instead.  You can try all different spices if you like a different flavor.  If the dressing dries up a bit while sitting in the fridge, just add a bit
of Agave to freshen up.   This can be eaten alone or on a bed of your favorite greens.

Curry Baked Tofu Salad

1            8 oz. pkg. baked tofu
2            green onions, diced
1            small celery rib, diced
1/3         cup raisins
1/3         cup slivered almonds


              dash of liquid smoke
1            teaspoon curry powder
1/2         teaspoon paprika
1/2         teaspoon garlic powder
1/2         teaspoon onion powder
1/4         teaspoon ginger powder
1            teaspoon oil
1            tablespoon agave
1            tablespoon white or apple cider vinegar
1/2         tablespoon lemon juice
1/2         tablespoon molasses


Prepare your salad items and put in a medium bowl.  In a separate bowl, mix the dressing ingredients together.  Mix the dressing with the Tofu and refrigerate.

Tuesday, May 30, 2017

Portobello "Steak" Wraps


Portobello “Steak” Wraps

2            medium Portobello mushrooms
2            tablespoons olive oil
2            medium peppers (orange, red), sliced
1            large sweet onion, thinly sliced
1            clove garlic, minced
1/2         teaspoon salt
1/4         teaspoon ground black pepper
1            tablespoon balsamic vinegar
4            flour tortillas
              vegan mozzarella cheese
              vegan cream cheese (optional)

Heat nonstick 12-inch skillet over medium heat until hot.  Brush both slides of mushrooms using 1 tablespoon oil.  Add mushrooms to skillet and cook until tender and lightly browned, about 10 minutes, turning once.  Transfer mushrooms to cutting board and cut into 1/4” thick slices; set aside.

In same skillet, heat remainig oil over medium heat until hot.   Add peppers, onions, garlic, salt and pepper; cook until vegetables are tender (mine were a bit al dente).
Stir in vinegar; remove skillet from heat.  Gently stir in sliced portobellos.

Spread tortillas on a baking sheet.  Layer with a coating of vegan cream cheese (if using) then the veggie/mushroom mixture and top with a sprinkling of vegan mozzarella. 

Put open tortillas under the broiler, just until vegan cheese is melted.


Remove, roll up and cut in half.

Friday, May 19, 2017

Mexican Style Pinto Beans


We made Tostadas with Mexican Style Pinto Beans as the base.  One Tostada consisted of Mexican Pinto Beans layered with tangy slaw and avocado, the other had a layer of vegan chorizo, melted vegan cheese and avocado.   The beans took the Tostadas to another level!

Mexican Style Pinto Beans

1            pound pinto beans, soaked overnight in cool water (or for at least 6 hrs)
1            tablespoon
1/2         white onion, diced
3            large cloves garlic, minced
1            pinch each sea salt and black pepper, plus more to taste
1            vegetable bullion or 1 cup vegetable broth
1            tablespoon ground cumin
1            tablespoon chili powder
1            jalapeno chile, finely chopped (optional)

Add pinto beans to a large pot and cover with cool water.  Soak for at least 6 hours or overnight uncovered at room temperature.  Once beans are soaked, drain and set aside.

Heat your large pot over medium heat.  Once hot, add olive oil, diced onion and garlic, and season with healthy pinch each salt and pepper.  Stir to coat and sauté for 3-4 minutes, or until onion is soft and translucent.

Next, add drained beans and bouillon cube and cover with water about 2 inches over the top, as the beans will expand while cooking.  If using vegetable broth in place of a bouillon cube, add vegetable broth first, and then water so you don’t add too much liquid.

Add jalapeño (if using), stir and bring to low boil.  Then reduce heat to low or medium-low and simmer for 400-45 minutes, or until beans are tender.

Once the beans are tender and cooked through add remaining seasons:  Salt, pepper, cumin, and chili powder.  Stir to coat and cook on low for 10 more minutes to let the flavors meld.


To make refried beans

Add 1/2 cup finely chopped onion and cook 2-3 minutes, until browned.
Add 2 teaspoons finely chopped garlic and cook 30 seconds.
Add 2 cups cooked beans and 1/3 to 1/2 bean liquid to skillet.
Mash beans and liquid coarsely with back of wooden spoon or potato masher.

Cook 1-2 minutes more, until heated through, adding more bean liquid or water if needed.